The methods of organic synthesis have continued to advance rapidly and we have made an effort to reflect those advances in this Fifth Edition. Among the broad areas that have seen major developments are enantioselective reactions and transition metal catalysis, Computational chemistry is having an expanding impact on synthetic chemistry by evaluating the energy profiles of mechanisms and providing structural representation ot unobservable intermediates and transition states.
The organization of Part B is similar to that in the earlier editions, but a few changes have been made. The section on introduction and removal of protecting groups has been moved forward to Chapter 3 to facilitate consideration of protecting groups throughout the remainder of the text. Enolate conjugate addition has been moved from Chapter 1 to Chapter 2, where it follows the discussion of the generalized aldol reaction. Several new sections have been added, including one on hydroalumination, carboalumination, and hydrozirconation in Chapter 4, another on the olefin metathesis reactions in Chapter 8, and an expanded discussion of the carbonyl-ene reaction in Chapter 10.
Chapters 1 and 2 focus on enolates and other carbon nucleophiles in synthesis. Chapter 1 discusses enolate formation and alkylation. Chapter 2 broadens the discussion to other carbon nucleophiles in the context of the generalized aldol reaction, which includes the Wittig, Peterson, and Julia olefination reactions. The chapter and considers the stereochemistry of the aldol reaction in some detail, including the use of chiral auxiliaries and enantioselective catalysts.
Chapters 3 to 5 focus on some fundamental functional group modification reactions. Chapter 3 discusses common functional group interconversions, including nucleophilic substitution, ester and amide formation, and protecting group manipulations. Chapter 4 deals with electrophilic additions to double bonds, including the use of hydroboration to introduce functional groups. Chapter 5 considers reductions by hydrogenation, hydride donors, hydrogen atom donors, and metals and metal ions.
Chapter 6 looks at concerted pericyclic reactions, including the Diels-Alder reaction, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, [3,3] and [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, and thermal elimination reactions. The carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions are emphasized and the stereoselectivity of the reactions is discussed in detail.
Chapters 7 to 9 deal with organometallic reagents and catalysts. Chapter 7 considers Grignard and organolithium reagents. The discussion of organozinc reagents emphasizes their potential for enantioselective addition to aldehydes. Chapter 8 discusses reactions involving transition metals, with emphasis on copper and palladium-mediated reactions. Chapter 9 considers the use of boranes, silanes, and stannanes in carbon-carbon bond formation. These three chapters focus on reactions such as nucleophilic addition to carbonyl groups, the Heck reaction, palladiumcatalyzed cross-coupling, olefin metathesis, and allyl boration, silation, and stannylation. These organometallic reactions currently are among the more important for construction of complex carbon structures.
Chapter 10 considers the role of reactive intermediates-carbocations, carbenes, and radicals-in synthesis. The carbocation reactions covered include the carbonyl-ene reaction, polyolefin cyclization, and carbocation rearrangements. In the carbene section, addition (cyclopropanation) and insertion reactions are emphasized. Recent development of catalysts that provide both selectivity and enantioselectivity are discussed, and both intermolecular and intramolecular (cyclization) addition reactions of radicals are dealt with. The use of atom transfer steps and tandem sequences in synthesis is also illustrated.
Chapter 11 focuses on aromatic substitution, including electrophilic aromatic substitution, reactions of diazonium ions, and palladium-catalyzed nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Chapter 12 discusses oxidation reactions and is organized on the basis of functional group transformations. Oxidants are subdivided as transition metals, oxygen and peroxides, and other oxidants.
Chapter 13 illustrates applications of synthetic methodology by multistep synthesis and perhaps provides some sense of the evolution of synthetic capabilities. Several syntheses of two relatively simple molecules, juvabione and longifolene, illustrate some classic methods for ring formation and functional group transformations and, in the case of longifolene, also illustrate the potential for identification of relatively simple starting materials by retrosynthetic analysis. The syntheses of Prelog-Djerassi lactone highlight the methods for control of multiple stereocenters, and those of the Taxol precursor Baccatin III show how synthesis of that densely functionalized tricyclic structure has been accomplished. The synthesis of epothilone A illustrates both control of acyclic stereochemistry and macrocyclization methods, including olefin metathesis. The syntheses of (+)-discodermolide have been added, illustrating several methods for acyclic stereoselectivity and demonstrating the virtues of convergency. The chapter ends with a discussion of solid phase synthesis and its application to syntheses of polypeptides and oligonucleotides, as well as in combinatorial synthesis.
There is increased emphasis throughout Part B on the representation of transition structures to clarify stereoselectivity, including representation by computational models. The current practice of organic synthesis requires a thorough knowledge of molecular architecture and an understanding of how the components of a structure can be assembled. Structures of enantioselective reagents and catalysts are provided to help students appreciate the three-dimensional aspects of the interactions that occur in reactions.
A new feature of this edition is a brief section of commentary on the reactions in most of the schemes, which may point out a specific methodology or application. Instructors who want to emphasize the broad aspects of reactions, as opposed to specific examples, may wish to advise students to concentrate on the main flow of the text, reserving the schemes and commentary for future reference. As mentioned in the
Acknowledgment and Personal Statement, the selection of material in the examples and schemes does not reflect priority, importance, or generality. It was beyond our capacity to systematically survey the many examples that exist for most reaction types, and the examples included are those that came to our attention through literature searches and reviews.
Several computational studies have been abstracted and manipulable threedimensional images of reactants, transition structures, intermediates, and products provided. This material provides the opportunity for detailed consideration of these representations and illustrates how computational chemistry can be applied to the mechanistic and structural interpretation of reactivity. This material is available in the Digital Resource at springer.com/carey-sundberg.
As in previous editions, the problems are drawn from the literature and references are given. In this addition, brief answers to each problem have been provided and are available at the publishers website.