During the twentieth century we saw a veritable revolution in medicine. Some of the most notable advances have been in the elucidation of the risk factors for and treatment of cardio and cerebral vascular disease. Identifying these factors through epidemiological studies has led to the development of guidelines for a healthy life style and therapies to control this major killer of the elderly. As a result of these efforts at the present time cardiovascular disease, rather than being the leading cause of death in the United States, has dropped to second behind cancer. Beginning with such seminal studies as the Seven Countries study and the Framingham program, these major advances have resulted from a collaboration among several disciplines, including epidemiology, clinical trials, cell biology, and basic biochemistry. The combined findings from these disparate disciplines have served as the foundation for the institution of public health measures, such as smoking cessation campaigns and new dietary recommendations, as well as the development of medications to prevent disease through the control of such major risk factors as hypertension and hyperlipidemia. One of the major insights into the underlying cause of vascular injury is that it is initiated by oxidant injury to the vessel wall. The current volume is organized around the role of oxidant damage in this disease process. We have sought to present the most recent studies from various disciplines which can serve as the basis for further improvements in our understanding and control of cardio and cerebral vascular disease.